The history of Busko-Zdrój dates back to the 12th century when its territory was occupied by the shepherds' settlement. The first records concerning this unusual place can be found in the Papal bull from 1166. Dzierżko knight who was called Dersław is considered to be the founder of the town. In the years 1180-1185 he brought to Busko the Order of the Norbertines for whom he also founded a convent and a church. When he died, the whole wealth of Dersław became the property of the nuns. An important element which hugely contributed to the development of the town were the salt-springs. In 1252 Bolesław the Chaste issued an immunity to exploit the salt-springs and to curdle salt. Thanks to the Norbertines, the duke Leszek the Black in 1287 granted to the settlement town privileges. At that time, Busko was divided into 2 parts: an urban part with the German law and the part operating under the Polish law. Busko developed also thanks to the efforts of the king Władysław Jagiełło who contributed to organisation of 2 fairs per year in Busko. The king himself visited Busko several times, and his wife - queen Jadwiga, is even considered the first patient of the Busko health resort. After the Swedish Deluge in 1655 which almost completely ruined the town, the process of its reconstruction was very slow. The town regained its splendour for a short time thanks to the discovery in 1776 of salt-springs. This natural remedy was for the first time used for medical purposes in 1808 by a local doctor Jan Winterfeld. His successful therapy gained recognition and more and more guests started to visit the town. The person who became convinced of salutary properties of the waters was Feliks Rzewuski - owner of the town in those days. He decided to make the best use of their valuable properties to contribute to the development of Busko. His efforts contributed to the official opening of the health resort as early as on 1 June 1836. In the centre of the town's spa part there was raised a building of "Łazienki" (Baths) designed by an Italian architect Henry Marconi. It was surrounded by a vast bath garden created by Ignacy Hanusz. Since that time, more and more guests started to arrive in the health resort. For their needs new sanatorium facilities were built. A significant date for Busko-Zdrój is the year 1918 when Dr Szymon Starkiewicz started to treat children. In fact, on his initiative the first sanatorium for children, commonly called "Górka" (Hill), was founded. Today, it operates as Dr Szymon Starkiewicz Specialist Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Hospital "Górka" (Hill). Yet, before the Second World War there was opened the Military Seasonal Hospital Busko-Zdrój which today is known as the 21st Military Spa and Rehabilitation Hospital. Since the end of the 2nd World War the spa centre has been flourishing. The following are specific facilities which were put into use:

"Nida-Zdrój" Sanatorium in 1968, "Krystyna" Spa Hospital, "Włókniarz" Sanatorium in 1973, "Rafał" Sanatorium in 1978, and also "Radek" – today the "Gromada" hotel. Later, there was opened the Sanatorium "Willa Zielona" (Green Villa). 1960 marked the beginning of production of the therapeutic mineral water "Buskowianka" in Busko-Zdrój.

Today, Busko-Zdrój is one of the best known health resorts in the country. The town and the commune can not only take pride in successes in treatment, but also in the developed sports and recreation base as well as in rich cultural life.